Vaccine-derived Polio virus in London
Cholera in Spain.
Early today, a piece of news made the rounds on social media.
Traces of the polio virus have been found during a routine sewage inspection in London, leading the UK Health Security Agency to declare a national incident.
Health officials are now concerned about the community spread of the virus after samples were collected from the Beckton Sewage Treatment Works in London, but have stressed the risk to the public is extremely low.
Several closely-related polio viruses were found in sewage samples taken between February and May. It has continued to evolve and has now been classified as a 'vaccine-derived' poliovirus type 2 (VDPV2).
Officials believe there has been some spread between closely linked individuals in northeast London - probably extended family members - and that these people are now shedding the type 2 poliovirus strain in their faeces.
Urgent investigations will try to establish the extent of community transmission and to identify where it may be occurring.
The real “piece” of news on this one, and it is already widely reported elsewhere is the bolded text. Vaccine-derived Poliovirus Type 2.
“Wait a minute, VACCINE WHAT”
Not so similar to what happens in Coronaviruses and other types of viruses, this has to do with the type of vaccination used. Attenuated vaccines (basically the virus is half-dead, but still alive, gross simplification) have been known to, sometimes, deattenuate. Means, that they reverse to the virulent form, or sometimes, evolve.
Of course, this isn’t the entire article. Following below is a case of Vaccine-Derived Polio virus.
Case of Poliomyelitis Caused by Significantly Diverged Derivative of the Poliovirus Type 3 Vaccine Sabin Strain Circulating in the Orphanage
Significantly divergent polioviruses (VDPV) derived from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains, like wild polioviruses, are capable of prolonged transmission and neuropathology. This is mainly shown for VDPV type 2. Here we describe a molecular-epidemiological investigation of a case of VDPV type 3 circulation leading to paralytic poliomyelitis in a child in an orphanage, where OPV has not been used. Samples of feces and blood serum from the patient and 52 contacts from the same orphanage were collected twice and investigated. The complete genome sequencing was performed for five polioviruses isolated from the patient and three contact children. The level of divergence of the genomes of the isolates corresponded to approximately 9–10 months of evolution. The presence of 61 common substitutions in all isolates indicated a common intermediate progenitor. The possibility of VDPV3 transmission from the excretor to susceptible recipients (unvaccinated against polio or vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine, IPV) with subsequent circulation in a closed children’s group was demonstrated. The study of the blood sera of orphanage residents at least twice vaccinated with IPV revealed the absence of neutralizing antibodies against at least two poliovirus serotypes in almost 20% of children. Therefore, a complete rejection of OPV vaccination can lead to a critical decrease in collective immunity level. The development of new poliovirus vaccines that create mucosal immunity for the adequate replacement of OPV from Sabin strains is necessary.
The glaring overlooked statement is highlighted at the end of this paragraph. Where did I read something similar before ? Oh yes, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, where none gives you mucosal immunity, who would have thought that is an important part of vaccine development ?
April 26, 2022
Is polio making a comeback?
The world has spent billions of dollars over the last 15 years in an effort to wipe out the virus through vaccination efforts – with encouraging results.
Rates plunged from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to just several dozen by 2016.
But in recent years, polio incidence has started to inch back up. The reason has to do with the type of vaccine used in many parts of the world, primarily in low- and middle-income countries. While the United States and other Western countries inject an inactivated virus that poses no risk of spread and are now polio-free, other countries rely on an oral vaccine. It's cheap, it's easy to administer and two or more doses confer lifelong immunity. But it's made with living, weakened virus. And that poses a problem.
Those who've been immunized with live virus can shed it in their stool, which can then spread through sewage in places with poor sanitation. If the virus stays weak, it can expose the unvaccinated to polio and give them immunity. But if it mutates and regains virulence, someone who isn't vaccinated can become sick with vaccine-derived polio after contact with the contaminated wastewater.
And now countries that had previously eradicated polio in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia are seeing new outbreaks of vaccine-derived polio.
There are now more cases of vaccine-derived polio, with severe (paralysis) outcomes than from the actual thing. I also expect that any new cases from VDPV comes from immigrants, all imported cases, similar to the MonkeyPox.
Does anyone want an update on the MonkeyPox situation ?
Let us not forget that antibiotic-resistant bugs are evolving rather fast, and it is a real problem because there is not much investment and all the low-hanging fruits of the field have been picked.
More than 100,000 people die each year from typhoid fever
Scientists have voiced concern over resistant bugs for years
Treatment-resistant typhoid originating mostly from South Asia has springboarded across borders almost 200 times in the past three decades, according to new research that underscores the increasing global threat of infections that can evade antibiotics.
Between 2014 and 2019, scientists sequenced the genomes from 3,489 cases of S. Typhi, the bacteria that causes typhoid fever and kills over 100,000 people annually. Data from four high-burden nations -- Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan -- were combined with an analysis of 4,169 similar samples from more than 70 countries over a 113-year period, making it the largest study of its kind.
And as a last-minute addition, Cholera is also making a comeback.
These will also be imported cases. As as a joke to lighten the mood.
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